Evaluation of Safety and Efficiency of Method of Exosome Inhalation in SARS-CoV-2 Associated Pneumonia
State-Financed Health Facility "Samara Regional Medical Center Dinasty"
First Published (first received 2020 Jul 29)ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04491240)Trial registry record
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. COVID-19 is now a pandemic affecting many countries worldwide. Globally, as of 1: 09 pm CEST, 27 July 2020, there have been 16 096 741 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 646 384 deaths, reported to WHO. The main and rapidly achievable target of SARS-CoV-2 is lung type II alveolar cells (AT2), which determines the development of diffuse alveolar damage. In the pathogenesis of ARDS due to COVID-19, the main role is played by an over-response of the immune system with rapidly developing severe life-threatening cytokine release syndrome (cytokine storm). Cytokine release syndrome threatens the emergence and progression of ARDS. The key components of the pathogenesis of ARDS also include disruption of cell cytotoxicity mechanisms, excessive activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and macrophages with a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines (FNO-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), granulocytic colony-stimulating factor, monocytic chemoattractive protein 1), and inflammatory markers (CRP, serum ferritin), infiltration of internal organs and tissues by activated T-lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in a hyperinflammatory reaction. Such severe lesions can lead to death or severe lung damage, including long rehabilitation after discharge. Experimental studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may significantly reduce lung inflammation and pathological impairment resulting from different types of lung injury. Many researchers connect the anti-inflammatory effect of MSC with their secretome which includes MSC derived exosomes. It is highly likely that MSC exosomes have the same therapeutic effect on inoculation pneumonia as MSCs themselves. Moreover, exosomes show a strong effect of regenerative stimulation on different wounds so the regenerative effect can be extended on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The purpose of this protocol is to explore the safety and efficiency of aerosol inhalation of the exosomes in the treatment of severe patients hospitalized with novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP)