Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register
Kondo 2021

COVID-19 shares clinical features with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 positive dermatomyositis and adult Still's disease

  1. Study Type
  2. Observational
  1. Study Aim
  2. Diagnostic/Prognostic
  1. Study Design
  2. Case series/Case control/Cohort
  1. Intervention Assignment
  2. Not Applicable

COVID-19 shares clinical features with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 positive dermatomyositis and adult Still's disease

Kondo Y, Kaneko Y, Takei H, Tamai H, Kabata H, Suhara T, Yamamoto R, Nagata H, Ishii M, Sasaki J, Hasegawa N, Fukunaga K, Takeuchi T, Keio Donner Project
Journal article
Report Results
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the similarities and differences between Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and autoimmune and autoinflammatory rheumatic diseases characterised by hyperferritinaemia, such as antimelanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) autoantibody-positive dermatomyositis and adult Still's disease. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive, newly diagnosed, untreated patients with COVID-19, anti-MDA5 dermatomyositis, or adult Still's disease. We compared their clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, including the prevalence of macrophage activation syndrome and lung involvement in each disease. RESULTS: The numbers of patients with COVID-19, anti-MDA5 dermatomyositis, and adult-onset Still's disease with hyperferritinaemia (serum ferritin ≥500ng/dL) who were included for main analysis were 22, 14, and 59, respectively. COVID-19 and adult Still's disease both featured hyperinflammatory status, such as high fever and elevated serum C-reactive protein, whereas COVID-19 and anti-MDA5 dermatomyositis both presented with severe interstitial lung disease and hypoxaemia. While two-thirds of the patients in each group met the criteria for macrophage-activated syndrome that is used in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the HScore, an indicator of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, was low in anti-MDA5 dermatomyositis and COVID-19 even in severe or critical cases. The findings of chest computed tomography were similar between COVID-19 and anti-MDA5 dermatomyositis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 shared clinical features with rheumatic diseases characterised by hyperferritinaemia, including anti-MDA5 dermatomyositis and adult Still's disease. These findings should be investigated further in order to shed light on the pathogenesis of not only COVID-19 but also the aforementioned rheumatic diseases